Appearance Reproduction for Cultural Heritage Applications: from Surface Acquisition to Realistic 2.5D Printing

Article de la thèse de Marine Page, publié à Electronic Imaging 2017 (

M. Page 1,2,3 , C. Boust 1 , G. Obein 3 , M. Ortiz 2 , A. Razet 3

1 Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France
2 Océ Print Logic Technologies
3 Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers

2.5D printing is a technology which creates surface relief by
superimposing successive layers of inks. The question of the
characterization of heights obtained with this technique brings us
to consider new metrics and mathematical ways to represent the
influence of diverse printing parameters on the obtained relief,
possibly used to compensate the defaults of the system.
Our method takes over the classical Modulation Transfer
Function (MTF) approach and adapts it to a vertical modulation
instead of considering the (x, y) plane, introducing then a Height
Modulation Transfer Function (HMTF). Characterization charts
are composed of lines patterns printed at different heights,
frequencies and droplet levels. Prints are scanned with a
chromatic confocal sensor and resulting topographies are
analyzed to extract the HMTF. By analogy with traditional MTF
methods, results – consisting of the measurement of the deviation
between the digital input and the analog output – allow to evaluate
the quality of our printer and to compensate it by setting up a
retro-action loop.
The method, here presented in the case of the 2.5D printing
prototype, can be extended to regular 3D printing techniques.